Vol. 130, No. 7 | September 2015 Cosmetics & Toiletries® | 39
Based on these placebo-controlled, in vitro results, it seems the proprietary liquid
enamel technology evokes beneficial effects on demineralized and etched enamel.
Most likely, the negatively charged carboxymethyl cellulose binds to the
predominantly positively charged hydration layer of the enamel surface, 10
building up a thin layer. Since carboxymethyl cellulose also has ion-exchanging
abilities, it could be binding ions from the toothpaste such as fluoride or calcium
cations, storing a reservoir next to the enamel; this supports remineralization as it
To investigate this mechanism in depth, electron dispersion x-ray (EDX) was
used to analyze the modified surface layer of the test sample-treated specimen.
This technique further supported the hypothesis: a relative fluoride enrichment,
compared with demineralized or intact enamel surfaces, was shown. This initial
Figure 4. Profilometric scan of refilling micro lesions samples;
sample (a) shows an etched area in the middle surrounded by
intact enamel; (b) is the test sample-treated enamel; and (c) is the
test sample-treated enamel subjected to consecutive ultrasound
challenge. Color indicates altitudes, where blue corresponds to high
levels and red, to low levels.
Table 1. Altitude Differences Between Intact and Etched Enamel,
and Microlesion Refilling
A B C ∆(A-B) ∆A(B-C)
Sample (nm) (nm) (nm) (nm) (nm)
Specimen1 2.06 1. 64 1.74 420 320
Specimen2 2.82 2.02 2. 35 800 470
Specimen3 2. 35 1. 64 1.99 710 360
Specimen4 2. 52 2.02 2. 21 500 310
Average 2.438 1830 2073 608 365
SD 318 219 267 177 73
Quantification using the three-point surface methodology; shown is the enamel: after etching
(a), after test treatment (b), after test treatment plus consecutive ultrasound challenge (c); the
difference between (a) and (b) or ∆(A-B), which shows the direct effect; and differences between
(b) and (c) or ∆A(B-C), indicating a long-term direct effect.