Vol. 130, No. 7 | September 2015 Cosmetics & Toiletries® | 59
fragrance A was a liked fragrance, it may not have
been suitable fit for the concept/product.
Fragrance B, as a fragrance alone, was a liked
fragrance and had a positive effect on emotion, was
relaxing, and increased attention. However, when the
concept was “primed” with fragrance B, it decreased
this effect on emotion while still driving attention.
When paired with the concept, fragrance B increased
negative emotion—possibly as a sign of “novelty”
or “incongruence”—while increasing arousal and
increasing attention towards the product. Fragrance
B may have been novel and therefore not initially
recognized for the concept. However, it did draw
attention/focus and increase arousal to the concept.
Fragrance C did not have a strong effect emotionally or physiologically alone. However, when
the concept was “primed” with fragrance C, it did
drive attention up. When paired with the concept,
fragrance C increased positive emotions while
decreasing arousal. Fragrance C may have been the
most recognizable and familiar to the participants,
and thus a comfortable match for the product.
In this study, the fragrance was presented first,
then the concept, followed by the combination of the
fragrance + concept. However, it may be interesting,
depending on the goals of the development team, to
investigate a different order of effects on the holistic
experience; for example, had the concept been tested
first, then the fragrance, then the combination. This
reversed order may result in different priming effects.
The two studies presented in this paper demonstrate ways in which neuroscience and psychology
can be applied to consumer research (see Using
Applied Neuroscience sidebar, online). The results
for Study 1 interestingly suggest that negative
messaging may not be damaging to self-confidence.
Positive messaging, however, may attract the most
interest in stimuli as well as increase overall feelings
of self-confidence. This work could be useful for
designing products and positive communications in
Study 2 successfully differentiated stimuli based
on psycho-physiological measures for liking and
intensity, as well as assessed attribute appropriateness
for fit to concept. This novel methodology provides a
sensitive and efficient way to differentiate changes to
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