Vol. 130, No. 7 | September 2015 Cosmetics & Toiletries® | 55
intensity and appropriateness of the fragrances for
the product concept. The product concept included
an image of the product along with a description; e.g.,
“This lotion leaves skin feeling soft and fresh.”
Priming: Participants were primed with target
fragrances (n = 3), followed by a target concept (n
= 1), then exposed to the combination of the target
fragrance and concept in order to assess the effect
of each alone and combined. The fragrances were
all rated as highly liked, but differed in fragrance
characteristics; e.g., different types of floral and
Psycho-physiological measures: The positive,
negative or control priming effect was measured
by electrophysiological changes and eye tracking
behavior as described in Study 1. Again, assessments
included fEMG for emotional valence, HRV for attention and GSR conductance for arousal.
Procedure: The experimental sessions took place
in a centrally located testing facility in New Jersey.
The experiment leader explained the experiment to
the participant, allowed time for questions and asked
the participant to sign the informed consent form,
after which the electrodes were placed (see Figure 2).
Oral instructions were given by the experiment
leader and displayed on a computer screen.
After instruction, participants were given a
fragrance bottle to squeeze and sniff, followed by
Following concept exposure and survey, a combination of the target fragrance, introduced via squeeze
sniff bottle, with the target concept was presented for
10 seconds. Again, this was followed by a prompt on
the computer screen to answer survey questions on
liking, intensity and appropriateness.
Data analysis: Data was analyzed as described in
Results: Study 2
Hedonics and appropriateness for fragrance
alone: Analyses showed no differences among the
fragrances for appropriateness [F( 2, 69) = 0.64, p =
0.53] or liking [F( 2, 69) = 2. 5, p = 0.09] (see Figure 8 on
Fragrance alone on psycho-physiological measures: The fragrances (A, B and C) had no significant
effect on either positive or negative emotional valence
obtained by fEMG.
Time-averaged means of positive valence fEMG to
the fragrances alone showed no significant differences
[F( 2, 27) = 2. 26, p = 0.13; see Figure 9a on Page 60].
Participants felt slightly more positive with fragrance
A, followed by B, but little positive emotional reaction to fragrance C.
Time-averaged means of negative valence fEMG
to the fragrances alone also showed no significant
differences [F( 2, 27) = 0.66, p = 0.52; see Figure 9b on
Page 60]. Both fragrances A and B evoked a slightly
Figure 4. Positive emotional valence (fEMG) for neutral (blue), negative (red) and positive