28 | www.CosmeticsandToiletries.com Vol. 130, No. 7 | September 2015
RESEARCH | C&T
colored product to the part of their hair, also called
maang, to symbolize each woman is happy and
fulfilled and dedicated by all means to her husband.
It is considered as auspicious and sacred and is meant
to be worn by every bride from her wedding until the
death of her husband, for his long life and prosperity.
The removal of sindoor is very significant for a widow
and many rituals are associated with the mother-in-law or older sister-in-law wiping it off.
In Nepal, the Sindur tree is a sacred symbol of
purity. The pulp surrounding its seeds is made into
pure and natural sindoor. During auspicious dates
for upcoming marriages, per vedic tradition, people
travel from afar to obtain the natural form of sindoor.
In the past, women used litharge-based sindoor,
which has been replaced by barium sulfate, along
with approved colors, giving bright red shades. Traditionally, sindoor was manufactured by mixing various
ingredients and grinding them to a homogeneous
powder mass, which was then filled in attractive containers or pots. Today, for convenience, the product
is available in stick and liquid form, complete with an
Typical sindoor formulas are as follows:
Powder sindoor: Barium sulfate, qs to 100%;
FDA-approved pigments, mostly red and maroon
shades, 15-20%; preservatives, qs; and fragrance
Liquid sindoor: Water (aqua), qs
to 1005; thickener, e.g., magnesium
aluminum silicate, 1. 5-2.0%; sorbitol,
5%; sugar, 4%; and approved pigments
and pearlescent pigments, 5-7%.
Sindoor stick: Mineral oil, 13%;
pentaerythrityl tetraisostearate, 6%;
synthetic beeswax, 9.7%; preservative,
qs; approved pigments, qs; cyclomethicone, 32%; carnauba wax, 2%; and
fragrance (parfum), qs.
Kumkum is a powder made from
either turmeric or saffron—the latter of
which, in ayurveda texts, is also often
referred to as kumkum. It is used for
social and religious markings in India to increase the
fairness and glow of skin. In some areas, it is a part of
bridal makeup, wherein a bride’s forehead is adorned
with small white and red dots artistically applied
along the brows.
Originally, Chandan or sandalwood paste and
Geru or red stone paste were used to create these
dots. Today, kumkum is used. To produce kumkum,
turmeric is dried and powdered with slaked lime,
which turns the rich yellow powder into a red color.
Currently, kumkum is available in forms ranging
from liquid and powder, to paste and even stickers.
When it is applied between eyebrows, as in a bindi
or “dot,” described next, this is said to be the location
of the sixth chakra, agya chakra, wheel of wisdom
or energy point in the body. In Hindu tradition, this
is considered the most sensitive part of body and is
regarded as an exit point for energy. However, when
products are applied to this body site, they are said to
retain energy and strengthen concentration, as well as
protect against demons or bad luck.
The product is available in various shades and
while married women usually apply red-colored
For companies such as
L’Oréal and Colorbar,
kajal is actually
n India was one of the best performing emerging
markets for beauty and personal care in 2014,
with retail sales climbing 15% from 2013.
n India has some of the best growth prospects
over the next five years. As a major oil importer,
India’s economy is notably being boosted by
cheaper oil prices. This will filter though into the
pockets of increasingly beauty-conscious urban
Source: GCI ( GCImagazine.com)
To produce kumkum, turmeric is dried and powdered with slaked lime, which turns the
rich yellow powder into a red color.