64 | www.CosmeticsandToiletries.com Vol. 131, No. 5 | June 2016
FORMULATING | C&T
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Hair and scalp are the body areas most exposed to the environment— sunrays, pollution, dry and humid air—and mechanical stress and occlusion—combing, hats, head protections and helmets—to chemical and physical stress—perms, styling, dyeing. Indeed, they have many
different physico-chemical and biological characteristics.
First of these is reduced air circulation and hindered oxygen exchange
on the scalp surface, which can bring localized high concentrations of
carbon dioxide. Second are the capillary forces that facilitate the diffusion
of sebum along the hair shaft and its spreading onto nearby hair by physical contact. This lipid layer protects the hair and scalp, but it also can trap
powders, dissolved chemicals and other contaminants that are suspended
in the air. Additionally, the bacterial and yeast proliferation on the scalp is
commonly associated with enhanced desquamation, itching, scratching and
redness, all of which are frequent manifestations of scalp disequilibrium.
These states impact the appearance and the perceivable health of hair.
Neither women nor men want unattractive hair or an uncomfortable
scalp. Most demand their hair and scalp to be in pristine condition, as their
appearance is critical for easy social communication, sexual attraction,
personal identity and style elements. Counteracting the evidence of age
damages to the hair is also a growing concern, as the diameter, mechanical
properties and tactile perception—fineness, roughness, slipperiness—of
human hair become progressively worse as time goes by. 1
Hair and scalp care and maintenance are among the key tasks of many
cosmetic formulae. Their functions satisfy the complex needs of this body
district: cleansing, nourishing, protecting, stimulating, conditioning, and
enhancing appearance. Besides hair styling and coloring, scalp health is the
primary requirement for pleasant and satisfactory hair appearance. Indeed,
all nutrients brought by the blood flow through microcirculation to the hair
root participate in the proper growth of the hair shaft. In other words, scalp
care and hair care are strictly bound, at least in a first instance.
Hair maintenance, protection and strengthening are applied to the hair
for long periods after the initial phase of formation of the hair shafts inside
the scalp. After its rise from the scalp surface, the hair structure cannot
Luigi Rigano, Ph.D.
Rigano Laboratories S.r.l., Milan, Italy
Hair and Scalp Care
hair • scalp • care
formula • maintenance
The hair and scalp have
many different physico-chemical and biological
characteristics, yet they
are intrinsically linked in
people’s quest for healthy,